Green Steel for Europe

Overall approach

The European Union intends to gradually reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 % by 2050 (based on 1990 levels), which will bring new challenges and major changes for the European iron and steel industry.

The RFCS project GREENSTEEL supported the EU in achieving the set climate and energy targets by developing promising approaches for a successful conversion of the European steel industry towards a CO2 neutral economy. This included the analysis and identification of technology improvements or developments both in terms of meeting the targets for 2030 and those necessary for the long-term strategy for a climate-neutral Europe by 2050. Current research focuses on the technology pathways Circular Economy (CE), Smart Carbon Usage (SCU) and Carbon Direct Avoidance (CDA). The key elements of this transition process are politics, industry and technology (Figure 1). A combined and multidisciplinary analysis of these pillars has the potential to support a sustainable decarbonisation of the EU steel industry and to further encourage similar processes in other European industries. 


Within the project GREENSTEEL, economic and political aspects were analysed in conjunction with technological solutions and industrial applications to identify financial and non-financial barriers. In addition, policy recommendations were elaborated and strategies for a successful decarbonisation of the iron and steel industry are developed. Industry representatives and stakeholders were involved in this project. The knowledge gained during the project GREENSTEEL was compiled in a roadmap. The main objectives of GREENSTEEL were:

  • Identification of the most promising technologies (mid- and long-term) for decarbonisation of the steel industry and the necessary framework conditions
  • Analysis of the required financial investment and development of possible funding opportunities from both private and public sources
  • Development of policy recommendations to promote the decarbonisation of the steel industry
  • Involvement of stakeholders at EU and national level and dissemination of the results obtained



Project runtime:

2020-01-01 to 2021-06-30

Funding scheme:


The project GREENSTEEL received a 100 % funding from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) under grant agreement No. 882151. 

Project consortium:

The project consortium included one think tank, seven research and technology organisations and two stakeholder organisations: