According to the state of the art main wear mechanisms may be divided into two groups, one of them associated with thermomechanical failure and leading to discontinuous wear, the other linked with chemical corrosion followed by erosion and causing continuous wear.

Objectives and Motivation

  • Simulation for behaviour of refractory lining under thermomechanical loading
  • Mass transfer model for the steel ladle
  • Simulation of erosion and its determination
  • Fracture mechanical characterisation of carbon containing refractories at high temperatures


The ability of modelling wear-relevant fluid dynamical processes, including user defined adaptions and moving boundary problems, as well as the methodological approaches established for the case of a steel ladle will be advanced and applied for further vessels and cases. The state of knowledge enables a common investigation of wear phenomena. Thermo-mechanical simulation activities will be supported by carrying out several high temperature mechanical tests including wedge splitting test, modified shear test, compressive and tensile creep tests, besides Young’s modulus measurements with impulse excitation technique.

Moreover, refined simulation procedures will be taken into consideration in terms of complex material behaviour, e.g. asymmetrical creep. A material database will be established to store thermal and mechanical properties of refractories. Further data like thermal expansion or shrinkage also will be included. A partly automated procedure for a finite element analysis including thermal, linear elastic analysis or additionally including failure models will be programmed. Optimization strategies e.g. orthogonal array technique, Monte Carlo method will be evaluated and integrated into the platform to analyse the main effects of lining parameters and provide the optimum parameter combinations to achieve the design goals.

Results and application

Out of the above research, more accurate description of mechanical failure, corrosion and erosion of steel vessels is available and provides the guideline for the further material and process development. Thermo-mechanical considerations yield a valid user-oriented platform for lining design optimization. Calculation of fluid dynamics enables an optimization (minimization) of the mass transfer at the slag/refractory interface without deteriorating the mass transfer at the slag/steel interface necessary out of metallurgical reasons targeting refractory wear reduction.